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In a paper appearing in the open access journal eLife, a team of researchers from Duke's School of Medicine details just how the Epstein-Barr virus manages to persist so well inside the immune system's B cells, a type of white blood cell that is normally responsible for recognizing and responding to foreign invaders.

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Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is of particular relevance in mantle cell lymphoma, as TLRs are important proteins involved in the innate immune system. Specifically, increased TLR4 expression in MCL cells can contribute to tumor progression [20]. TLRs recognize pathogen-associated microbial patterns (PAMPs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) to help cells recognize foreign invaders and trigger inflammatory responses. TLR4 activation in patients with recurrent bacterial infections promotes tumor growth and shields MCL cells from surveillance by the immune system [20]. Toll-like receptor signaling is twofold: one pathway involving TLR4 depends on MyD88, mediating early NF-κB activation, and the other pathway depends on TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), mediating late activation of NF-κB.

In recent years, many studies have found that TREM-1 expressed on microglia is involved in the pathological processes of CNS diseases, including ischemic stroke, SAH, cerebral hemorrhage, glioma, PD, AD, CNS infections, SCI and SCIRI (Tables 2, 3). TREM-1 may be a potential target for the treatment of these diseases. Microglia are the major immune cells in the CNS and play an important role in mediating the inflammatory response in CNS diseases. Microglia can recognize and eliminate foreign invaders, repair local tissue damage caused by injury, and play an important role in neural circuit regulation and general homeostasis. Tissue injury activates microglia and induces TREM-1 expression, and elevated TREM-1 further promotes microglial activation and polarization into the proinflammatory phenotype. However, persistent or chronic activation of microglia may lead to irreversible central nervous injury. In addition, innate immune cells generate an immune response in response to pathogen invasion or tissue damage, and the induced inflammatory response is associated with the activation of PRRs. As previously discussed, there is crosstalk between PRRs and the TREM-1 signaling pathway.


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